Virtual Help icon Virtual Help

  • Chat with library staff now
  • Contact your library
Skip to Main Content

Build Citations: sub-module 3 of 4 of how to cite

Citing your sources is a process of wayfinding: you provide the address, so that the reader is able to find the original source. It’s an academic and ethical process to acknowledge the person whose information you used to support your research. Citing is a key component of academic integrity and alerts the reader that an idea used in your paper was someone else’s.

 

Citation Examples

Print Books

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if any. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if any. Publisher.

Example

Martin, S. (2010). Take a look: Observation and portfolio assessment in early childhood. Pearson.

Note: List all other authors as they are listed on the book.

eBook from a Library Database

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if any. (Year of Publication). Title of eBook. Publisher.

Example

Connelly, J., & Forsyth, P. (2012). Essay writing skills: Essential techniques to gain top marks. Kogan Page.

Note: As most eBooks are available through a variety of databases, it is not necessary to include the name of the database where you viewed the eBook.

eBook from a Website

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if any. (Year of Publication). Title of eBook. Publisher. Hyperlinked URL (Statement of original publication date if necessary)

Example

House, F.N. (n.d.). The development of sociology. McGraw-Hill Book Company. https://hdl.handle.net/2027/uc1.$b50999 (Original work published 1936)

Note: Many online ebooks were published in print before they were published in eBook format. In these cases, include the year when the eBook was published. If that is not available, enter “n.d.” (no date). Include the year the book was originally published in a statement at the end of the citation. Don’t forget to add both dates in your in-text citation (for the above example: (House, 1936/n.d.)).

Edited book

Editor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if any. (Ed.). (Year of Publication). Title of book. Publisher.

Example

Fetherling, G. (Ed.). (2001). The vintage book of Canadian memoirs. Vintage Canada.

Note: APA recommends including a DOI, if available, because URLs can change. A DOI (digital object identifier) is an alphanumeric code that provides a permanent link to an article. If your journal article has a DOI, follow the “Journal Articles with DOI” example. If it does not, follow the example for Library Database/Print Version, or Web, determined by where you found the article. Finally, if your article has multiple authors (3-19, or 20+) follow the relevant example.

Journal Articles with DOI

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if any., and any additional authors. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. Hyperlinked DOI

Example(s)

Harwood, N., & Petric, B. (2011). Performance in the citing behavior of two student writers. Written Communication, 29(1), 55-103. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741088311424133

Journal Articles without a DOI, from Library Database or Print Version

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if any., and any additional authors. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers.

Example(s)

Cox, E. O., Green, K. E., Hobart, K., Jang, L. J., & Seo, H. (2007). Strengthening the late-life care process: Effects of two forms of a care-receiver efficacy intervention. The Gerontologist, 47(3), 388-397.

Journal Articles without a DOI, from the Web

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if any., and any additional authors. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. Hyperlinked URL

Example(s)

Blattberg, C. (2008). The scales of injustice. The Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice, 26(1). https://wyaj.uwindsor.ca/index.php/wyaj/article/view/4536

Journal Articles with Two to Nineteen Authors

First Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given, Second Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., Third Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., etc. & Last Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial.  (Year). Title of article: Subtitle if given. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. Hyperlinked DOI or URL (if applicable).

Note: List the first 1-19 authors and add an ampersand before the final author.

Example(s)

Rabelo‐Silva, E. R., Dantas Cavalcanti, A. C., Ramos Goulart Caldas, M. C., Lucena, A. D. F., Almeida, M. D. A., Linch, G. F. D. C., Barragan da Silva, M. & Müller‐Staub, M. (2017). Advanced nursing process quality: Comparing the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) with the NANDA‐International (NANDA‐I) and Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC). Journal of Clinical Nursing, 26(3-4), 379-387. https://doi-org./10.1111/jocn.13387

Journal Articles with more than Twenty Authors

First Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given, Second Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., Third Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., Fourth Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., Fifth Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., Sixth Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., Seventh Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., Eighth Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., Ninth Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., Tenth Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., Eleventh Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., Twelfth Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., Thirteenth Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., Fourteenth Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., Fifteenth Author’s Last Name, First Initial., Second Initial. Sixteenth Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., Seventeenth Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., Eighteenth Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., Nineteenth Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial., . . . Last Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle if given. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. Hyperlinked DOI or URL (if applicable)

Example(s)

Pegion, K., Kirtman, B. P., Becker, E., Collins, D. C., LaJoie, E., Burgman, R., Bell, R., DelSole, R., Min, D., Zhu, Y., Li, W., Sinsky, E., Guan, H., Gottschalck, J., Metzger, E. J., Barton, N. P., Achuthavarier, D., Marshak, J., Koster, R., . . . Kim, H. (2019). The subseasonal experiment (SubX): A multimodel subseasonal prediction experiment. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 100(10), 2043-2061.

Note: List the first 19 authors followed by an ellipsis to show information is missing, and then the last author's name.

Websites with a known author

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given., and any additional authors. (Year, Month Day). Title of document. Website Name. Hyperlinked URL

Example(s)

Geist, M. (2019, May 22). The foundation of Canada’s digital charter: Privacy law reform focused on a data-driven economy. Michael Geist. http://www.michaelgeist.ca/2019/05/the-foundation-of-canadas-digital-charter-privacy-law-reform-focused-on-a-data-driven-economy/

Websites with a group or corporate author (stand-alone document)

Group or Corporate Name. (Year). Title of document. Website name (include if different from author). Hyperlinked URL

Example(s)

Automotive Industries Association of Canada. (n.d.). Be car care aware. https://www.aiacanada.com/what-we-do/our-programs/bcca.html

Online Encyclopedia, Dictionary or Thesaurus Entry

Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given., and any additional authors. (n.d.). Title of entry. In Name of encyclopedia. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from Hyperlinked URL

Example(s)

Koch, E. (n.d.). Adrienne Clarkson. In The Canadian encyclopedia. Retrieved August 10, 2020, from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/adrienne-louise-clarkson

Note: When online reference works are continuously updated and no archived version is provided, enter “n.d.” for the year and provide a retrieval date.

Report by a Government Agency or Other Organization

Group or Corporate Name. (Year). Title of document. Website name (include if different from author). Hyperlinked URL

Example(s)

Canadian Cancer Society. (2015). Advanced cancer. http://www.cancer.ca/~/media/cancer.ca/CW/publications/Advanced%20cancer/32043-1-NO.pdf

Note: When the author and the website name are the same, omit the website name.

Wikipedia Articles

Title of entry. (Date of access). In Wikipedia. Hyperlinked URL

Example(s)

Gestalt psychology. (2020, August 8). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gestalt_psychology&oldid=971777041

Note: Note: Cite the archived version of the Wikipedia entry! To access the archived versions in Wikipedia, in your entry, click on View History and then the date of the version you used.

Use the link, and the date, in your citation. Remember that Wikipedia entries can be authored by anyone! Always check with your instructor to make sure Wikipedia entries are allowed for the assignment.

No Author, No Date

Title of document. (n.d.). Website Name. Hyperlinked URL

Example(s)

What is physics? (n.d.). Physics. http://www.physics.org/article-questions.asp?id=18

Note: If there is no identifiable date, put (n.d.). in place of the year to show you couldn't find a date.

PowerPoint Slides

Instructor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year, Month Day). Title of presentation [PowerPoint slides]. Publisher. Login page for publisher.

Example

Smith, J. (2017, Month Day). Cite your sources using APA style [PowerPoint slides]. eCentennial. https://e.centennialcollege.ca/

Course Packs

Author of Article/Chapter's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year of course pack's publication). Title of chapter or article in course pack. In First Initial. Last Name of Course Instructor who created course pack if given (Ed.), Title of course pack (page numbers). Name of College. (Original work published date)

Example

Bigelow, B., & Peterson, B. (2016). Rethinking globalization: Teaching for justice in an unjust world. In J. Fraser (Ed.), Exploring our global village: Readings CULT 14857G (pp. 33-37). Sheridan College. (Original work published 2002)

Note: The best way to cite course packs is to treat them as an article or chapter in an edited book, and include the date the work was original published (which should be included in your course pack, at the beginning or the end of the article). For your in-text citation, make sure to include both dates (for the above example: (Bigelow & Peterson, 2002/2016)).

Print Handouts

Instructor's Last Name, First Initial. (Year handout was created if given or n.d.). Title of handout [Class handout]. School, Faculty or Department Name, College Name.

Example

Marlow, F. (2017). Effective Google searching [Class handout]. Faculty of Business, Humber College.

Your Own Class Notes

Note: Notes you take in class are classified as personal communication, and appear only as in-text citations in your assignment. No References entry is needed for personal communication.

(Instructor initials, Instructor lastname, personal communication, Month Day, Year).

Example

(B. Bassidj, personal communication, September 22, 2016).

Personal Communication with Indigenous Persons

Note: Oral traditions and traditional knowledge of Indigenous peoples are treated as a distinct source category. If you are citing information you learned from a lecture, interview or conversation with an Indigenous person, provide more information in your in-text citation. Remember to seek permission to reproduce the information.

(First initial, Last name, Name of Indigenous Nation, lives in City, State/Province, personal communication, Month Day, Year).

Example

(T. Teegee, Takla Lake First Nation, lives in Prince George, British Columbia, personal communication, August 10, 2020).

Streaming Video

Note: The person or group who uploaded the video is considered the author. If the author’s name is the same as the username, you can omit the [Username]. Include the author’s username and real name (if known).

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. [Username]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Name of streaming site. Hyperlinked URL

Example

The Learning Portal/Le Portail d’Apprentissage. (2017, January 24). Types of paragraphs in an academic essay [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/TforwSE7ow0

Film

Note: You do not need to cite the format of a movie, ex. DVD. However, include the information in the square brackets, following the word Film, if the information you are citing can be found only in that particular format or edition.

Director's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Director). (Year). Title of film [Film]. Production Company.

Example

Huston, J. (Director). (1941). The Maltese falcon [Film]. Warner Home Video.

Online News Article

Follow this example if your article is from a news site with an associated newspaper.

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Hyperlinked URL

Example

Van Bastelaer, S. (2017, March 28). Is it time to take your snow tires off? The Toronto Star. https://www.thestar.com/news/starweather/2017/03/is-it-time-to-take-your-snow-tires-off-.html

Webpage on a News Website

Follow this example if your article is from a news site with an associated newspaper.

Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year, Month Day). Title of news article. Title of Site. Hyperlinked URL

Example

Mark, C. (2020, April 2). Tips on avoiding back pain and injury while working from home. CBC. https://www.cbc.ca/life/wellness/tips-for-avoiding-back-pain-and-injury-while-working-from-home-1.5519774

Online Magazine Articles

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Magazine. Hyperlinked URL

Example

Nguyen, M. (2020, July 27). Smart financial decisions small business owners should make now. Canadian Business. https://www.canadianbusiness.com/small-business/small-business-financial-decisions-to-make-now/

Newspaper and Magazine Articles, Print Version

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper or Magazine, page number.

Example

Ahsan, S. (2016, June 22). All access: Toronto's tangled art gallery is bringing so-called outsiders in. The National Post, B8.

Newspaper and Magazine Articles from a Library Database

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper or Magazine.

Example

VanRaes, S. (2020, August 12). Winnipeg is Canada’s “kindness rock” capital. Macleans.

Blogs

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year, Month Day). Title of blog post. Name of Blog. Hyperlinked URL

Example

McAdoo, T. (2015, April 15). Re: Using italics for technical (or key) terms. APA Style Blog. http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2015/04/using-italics-for-technical-or-key-terms.html

Note: If the real name of the person who created the blog post isn't given, provide their user name in the author field.

When citing social media posts, keep these rules in mind:

  • Do not change the spelling or capitalization in a social media post (even if the spelling is incorrect!)
  • Include hashtags and links
  • Add the presence of any audiovisuals (photos, videos) in square brackets.
  • If the link to your social media is long, you can shorten it using any online URL shortening site (this is optional -- you can keep the long link)
  • If the post includes emojis, try to replicate them in your citation. If you can't replicate the emoji, provide the emoji's name in square brackets (for example: [grinning face]).
  • You can usually find the name of the emoji by scrolling over it. You can also look for it on the Unicode Consortium's website.
  • Note: For social media content that can change over time (for example, Facebook pages and Twitter profiles), include a retrieval date

Tweet

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given or Full Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Text of the tweet up to first 20 words [Tweet]. Twitter. Hyperlinked URL

Example

NASA [@NASA]. (2020, July 21). Have you ever seen something so beautiful? [globe of Americas] [pleading face] Live views from earth from space during today’s spacewalk [Video attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/NASA/status/1285573798301962241

Twitter Profile

Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given or Full Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from Hyperlinked URL

Example

National Geographic [@NatGeo]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved August 5, 2020 from https://twitter.com/NatGeo

Facebook Post

Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given or Name of Group. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Facebook. Hyperlinked URL

Example

Outside Magazine. (2020, August 13). In a normal summer, thousands of AT thru-hikers need to eat over 4,000 calories a day to offset their trail [Article attached]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/outsidemagazine/posts/10158538463710429

Facebook Page

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from Hyperlinked URL

Example

Confederation College. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved May 5, 2020 from https://www.facebook.com/confederation

Instagram Photo or Video

Lastname, F. M. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Type of post]. Instagram. Hyperlinked URL

Example

Julie Payette [@ggjuliepayette]. (2020, August 12). Culture, history, breathtaking beauty. Today we celebrate the day that #Nunavut officially became a recognized territory within Canada. Happy #NunavutDay! [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/CCbIbqYAE2s

Podcast Episode

Podcast Host Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if available. (Host). (Year, Month Day). Title of episode: Subtitle (No. If provided) [Audio podcast episode]. In Name of podcast. Publisher. Hyperlinked URL

Example

Gilbert, E. (Host). (2015, July 13). Do what ignites your soul [Audio podcast episode]. In Magic lessons. Riverhead Books. http://podbay.fm/show/1018969048/e/1436813857?autostart=1

Online Photograph, Photographer Known

Photographer’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year). Title of photograph[Photograph]. Publisher. Hyperlinked URL

Example

Herber, S. (2013). Ice fishing hut 23 [Photograph]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/sandraherber/49922430776/

Online Photograph, No Title and Photographer Unknown

[Description of photograph] [Photograph]. (Year). Publisher. Hyperlinked URL

Example

[Children running down a path] [Photograph]. (n.d.). Pikist. https://www.pikist.com/free-photo-vtffe

Note: If the photograph does not have a title, provide a description in square brackets in place of the title. If there is no date listed, use (n.d.).

Artwork in a Museum or on a Museum Website

Artist’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year). Title of work [Format of work]. Museum Name, Museum Location. Hyperlinked URL if available

Example

Johnson, S.A. (2003). Nadine [Photograph]. National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada. https://www.gallery.ca/collection/artwork/nadine

Stock Image or Clip Art

Artist’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given or username. (Year). Title of work [Clip art/Stock image]. Publisher. Hyperlinked URL

Example

GDJ. (2018). Concept plane silhouette [Clip art]. Openclipart. https://openclipart.org/detail/312645/concept-plane-silhouette

Note: No citation is necessary for clip art from Microsoft programs.

Citation in MLA Style

The most common MLA Works Cited examples. This is not a exhaustive list, so refer to your college library guide for a comprehensive overview.

Books

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of Book: Subtitle if Any. Edition if given and is not first edition, Publisher, Year of Publication.

Example

Martin, Sue. Take a Look: Observation and Portfolio Assessment in Early Childhood. Pearson, 2010.

eBooks

Author's Last Name, First Name. Title of eBook. Publisher, Year of Publication. Name of Library Database, eBook URL.

Example

Connelly, Jacqueline, and Patrick Forsyth. Essay Writing Skills: Essential Techniques to Gain Top Marks. Kogan Page, 2012. EBSCO eBook Collection, login.library.sheridanc.on.ca/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.library.sheridanc.on.ca/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=430348&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

Edited books

Editor's Last Name, First Name, editor(s). Title of Book. Publisher, Year of Publication.

Example

Fetherling, George, editor. The Vintage Book of Canadian Memoirs. Vintage Canada, 2010.

Journal Articles from a Library Database

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal, Volume, Issue, Year, pp. First page number-Last page number. Name of Library Database, URL or DOI.

Note: if there is not DOI on the article, then use the permanent link to the article as the URL.

Example

Harwood, Nigel, and Bojana Petric. "Performance in the Citing Behavior of Two Student Writers." Written Communication, vol. 29, no. 1, 2012, pp. 55-103. SAGE Journals, doi:10.1177/0741088311424133.

Journal Articles with 3 or more authors

First Author's Last Name, First Name, et al. "Title of Article: Subtitle if Given." Title of Journal, Volume, Issue, Year, pp. page numbers. Name of Database, DOI or URL.

Example(s)

Hobday, Alistair, et al. "Climate Impacts and Oceanic Top Predators: Moving from Impacts to Adaptation in Oceanic Systems." Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, vol. 23, no. 4, 2013, pp. 537-546. Springer, doi:10.1007/s11160-013-9311-0.

Websites with a known author

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of document." Title of Website, Date, URL. Accessed Day Month Year.

Example

Mitchell, Sandra D. "The Import of Uncertainty." PhilSci Archive, 2000, philsci-archive.pitt.edu/162/. Accessed 16 Oct. 2016.

Websites with a group or corporate author

Group or Corporate Name. “Title of Document.” Title of Website, Year, URL.

Example

Canadian Cancer Society. "How We Can Help?" Canadian Cancer Society, 2017, www.cancer.ca/en/support-and-services/support-services/how-we-can-help/?region=on.

No Author, No Date

"Title of Document." Title of Website, URL. Accessed Day Month Year.

Example

"Does Anyone Understand Quantum Mechanics?" Physics.org, www.physics.org/featuredetail.asp?id=33. Accesed 20 Aug. 2016.

PowerPoint Slides

Instructor's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Lecture/PowerPoint slides." Course Name, Date of Presentation, Name of Academic Institution. Microsoft PowerPoint presentation.

Example

Smith, John. “How to Cite in MLA.” Communications 101, 15 Jan. 2016, School of Business, Algonquin College. Microsoft PowerPoint presentation.

Course Packs

Author of the article or chapter’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Article.” Title of Course Pack, edited by Instructor’s First Name Last Name, Name of Academic Institution, Year of course pack publication, pp. Page range.

Example

Bigelow, Bill, and Bob Peterson. “Structural Adjustment Policies: Innocent Name, Deadly Consequences.” Exploring Our Global Village: Readings CULT 14857G, edited by Jacqueline Fraser, Sheridan College, 2016, pp. 33-37.

Note: The best way to cite course packs is to treat them as a chapter in an edited book.

Print Handouts

Instructor's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Handout." Course Name, Date Received, Name of Academic Institution. Class handout.

Example

Smith, Joan. “Effective Google Searching.” Life 1000, 17 Sept. 2018, Sheridan College. Class handout.

Online video from YouTube, Hulu, Vimeo, etc.

"Title of Video." Title of Website, uploaded by Author's First and Last Name or Username, Day Month Year published, URL.

Example

"Avoiding Plagiarism." YouTube, uploaded by Sheridan Library, 25 Aug. 2014, www.youtube.com/watch?v=2qP0WRY_evs.

Note: If the author of the online video is different from uploader, cite the author's name before the title of the video.

Streaming video from a Library Database

Title of Video. Contributors if available, Publisher/Production Company, Date. Title of Library Database.

Example

Secret Life of Twins. BBC, 2015. Films on Demand.

DVD

Title of Film. Directed by First Name Last Name, performances by First Names Last Names, Production Company, Year of Release.

Example

The Maltese Falcon. Directed by John Huston, performances by Humphrey Bogart and Mary Astor, Warner Brothers Entertainment, 1941.

Newspapers and Magazines from the web

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Name of Newspaper or Magazine, Day Month Year of publication, URL.

Example

Ahsan, Sadaf. "Tangled, Toronto's First Accessible Art Gallery for Disabled Artists, is Bringing the Outsiders In." The National Post, 21 June 2016, news.nationalpost.com/arts/tangled-torontos-first-accessible-art-gallery-for-disabled-artists-is-bringing-the-outsiders-in.

Newspapers and Magazines from a Library Database

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Name of Newspaper, Day Month Year, pp. number if given. Name of Database, DOI or URL.

Example

Chen, Dalson. "U of W Battles Plagiarism; 35 Cases Last Semester." The Windsor Star, 8 Feb. 2013, p. A1. Canadian Newsstand, ra.ocls.ca/ra/algologin.aspx?inst=algonquin&/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.eztest.ocls.ca/docview/1285227493?accountid=39943.

Blogs

Author's Last Name, First Name or Username. "Title of Blog Post." Name of Blog, Blog Publisher if available, Day Month Year of Blog Post, URL. Accessed Day Month Year.

Example

Naish, Darren. "If Bigfoot Were Real." Tetrapod Zoology, Scientific American Blogs, 27 June 2016, blogs.scientificamerican.com/tetrapod-zoology/if-bigfoot-were-real/. Accessed 31 Mar. 2017.

Twitter

Twitter Username (Group Name or First Name Last Name if known). "The entire Tweet." Twitter, Day Month Year of Tweet, Time of Tweet, URL.

Example

@CentennialEDU (Centennial College). "There’s a reason they call it a movement. Get ready to shake things up, starting April 3. #Amazing50 #Centennial50." Twitter, 31 Mar. 2017, 9:10 a.m., twitter.com/CentennialEDU/status/847798220268998657.

Podcasts

Host's Last Name, First Name, narrator/host. "Title of Episode." Title of Podcast, Season Number if given, Episode Number if given, publisher if available, Day Month Year, URL. Accessed Day Month Year.

Example

Hardwick, Chris, host. "Anna Kendrick Returns." Nerdist, Episode 837, 8 Nov. 2016, nerdist.com/nerdist-podcast-anna-kendrick-returns/. Accessed 31 Mar. 2017.

Citations in APA Style

You will find the most common examples of APA References below. This is not a exhaustive list, so refer to your college library guide for a comprehensive overview.

Books

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if any. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle if any. City of Publication, Province/State: Publisher.

Note: List any other authors as they are listed on the book.

Example

Martin, S. (2010). Take a look: Observation and portfolio assessment in early childhood. Toronto, ON: Pearson.

eBooks

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if any. (Year of Publication). Title of eBook. Retrieved from eBook provider's URL

Example

Connelly, J., & Forsyth, P. (2012). Essay writing skills: Essential techniques to gain top marks. Retrieved from http://login.library.sheridanc.on.ca/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com.library.sheridanc.on.ca/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=430348&site=ehost-live&scope=site&ebv=EB&ppid=pp_Cove

Edited book, no author

Editor's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if any. (Eds.). (Year of Publication). Title of book. City of Publication, Province or State Code: Publisher.

Example

Fetherling, G. (Ed.). (2001). The vintage book of Canadian memoirs. Toronto, ON: Vintage Canada.

Journal Articles from a Library Database

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if any. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. DOI or Retrieved from URL

Note: if there is no DOI for the article, put Retrieved from and then add the permanent link to the article.

Example(s)

Harwood, N., & Petric, B. (2011). Performance in the citing behavior of two student writers. Written Communication, 29(1), 55-103. doi:10.1177/0741088311424133

Journal Articles with more than seven authors

First Author's Last Name, First Initial., Second Author's Last Name, First Initial., Third Author's Last Name, First Initial., Fourth Author's Last Name, First Initial., Fifth Author's Last Name, First Initial., Sixth Author's Last Name, First Initial., . . . Last Author's Last Name, First Initial. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle if given. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. DOI or Retrieved from URL

Example(s)

Hobday, A. J., Young, J. W., Abe, O., Costa, D. P., Cowen, R. K., Evans, K., ... Weng, K. C. (2013). Climate impacts and oceanic top predators: Moving from impacts to adaptation in oceanic systems. Reviews in Fish Biology & Fisheries, 23(4), 537-546. doi:10.1007/s11160-013-9311-0

Note: List the first six author's listed in the article followed by an ellipsis to show information is missing, and then the last author's name.

Websites with a known author

Author's Last Name, First Initial. (Year). Title of document [Format if something other than a regular web page]. Retrieved from URL

Example(s)

Geist, M. (2019). The foundation of Canada’s digital charter: Privacy law reform focused on a data-driven economy [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.michaelgeist.ca/2019/05/the-foundation-of-canadas-digital-charter-privacy-law-reform-focused-on-a-data-driven-economy/

Websites with a group or corporate author (stand-alone document)

Group or Corporate Name. (Year). Title of document [Format of document]. Retrieved from URL

Example(s)

Canadian Cancer Society. (2015). Advanced cancer [Brochure]. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.ca/~/media/cancer.ca/CW/publications/Advanced%20cancer/32043-1-NO.pdf

No Author, No Date

Title of document. (n.d.). Retrieved from URL

Example(s)

What is physics? (n.d). Retrieved from http://www.physics.org/article-questions.asp?id=18

Note: If there is no identifiable date, put (n.d.) in place of the year to show you couldn't find a date.

PowerPoint Slides

Instructor's Last Name, First Initial. (Year). Title of presentation. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from name of content management software.

Example

Smith, J. (2017). Cite your sources using APA Style. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from SLATE.

Course Packs

Author of Article or Chapter's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year of course pack's publication). Title of chapter or article in course pack. In First Initial. Last Name of Course Instructor who created course pack if given (Comp.), Title of course pack (page numbers). City of Publication, Province Code: Name of College.

Example

Bigelow, B., & Peterson, B. (2016). Rethinking globalization: Teaching our justice in an unjust world. In J. Fraser (Comp.), Exploring our global village: Readings CULT 14857G (pp.33-37). Brampton, ON: Sheridan College.

Note: The best way to cite course packs is to treat them as a chapter in an edited book.

Print Handouts

Instructor's Last Name, First Initial. (Year handout was created if given or n.d.). Title of handout [Class handout]. City course is located in, Province Code: College Name, Course code.

Example

Smith, J. (2017). Effective Google searching [Class handout]. Oakville, ON: Sheridan College, LIFE 1000.

YouTube video

Author's Last Name, First Initial or user name. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL

Example

The Learning Portal/Le Portail d’Apprentissage. (2017, January 24). Types of paragraphs in an academic essay [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/TforwSE7ow0

Streaming video from a Library Database

Author's Last name, First Initial. (Year, Month Day if available). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from Library Database name.

Example

O'Neil Hughes, B. (2017). Lightroom and Photoshop: Workflow strategies [Video file]. Retrieved from Lynda.com.

DVD

Producer/Writer/Director's Last Name, First Initial. (Role in Video Production, Producer/Writer/Director). (Year DVD was released). Title of DVD [DVD]. City of Publication, Province Code or State Code: DVD Distributor if known.

Example

Huston, J. (Director). (1941). The Maltese falcon [DVD]. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video.

Newspapers and Magazines from the web

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper or Magazine. Retrieved from URL

Example

Van Bastelaer, S. (2017, March 28). Is it time to take your snow tires off? The Toronto Star. Retrieved from https://www.thestar.com/news/starweather/2017/03/is-it-time-to-take-your-snow-tires-off-.html

Newspapers and Magazines from a Library Database

Author's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if given. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper or Magazine, p. page number or section number if available. Retrieved from Persistent link from Library Database

Example

Ahsan, S. (2016, June 22). All access: Toronto's tangled art gallery is bringing so-called outsiders in.The National Post. p. B.8. Retrieved from http://login.library.sheridanc.on.ca/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.library.sheridanc.on.ca/docview/1798936725?accountid=3455

Note: If the article is available outside of the database, such as on the newspaper/magazine’s website, include the URL for the homepage of that website instead of the database link.

Blogs

Author's Last Name, First Initial or Username if name not given. (Year blog was published, Month Day). Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL

Example

McAdoo, T. (2015, April 15). Re: Using italics for technical (or key) terms. [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2015/04/using-italics-for-technical-or-key-terms.html

Note: If the real name of the person who created the blog post isn't given, provide their user name in the author field.

Twitter

Author's Last Name, First Initial. or Full Name of Group [Twitter user name]. (Year, Month Day of tweet). Text of the Tweet [Tweet]. Retrieved from URL for the tweet

Example

APA Style [APA_Style]. (2019, May 14). Tip: Do not hyphenate a compound that includes an adverb ending in "ly." Examples: "widely used text" not "widely-used text" "randomly assigned participants" not "randomly-assigned participants" [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/APA_Style/status/1128340233219661824

Podcasts

Director/Producer/Podcast Host Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if available. (Role in podcast e.g. Host, Director, Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of episode: Subtitle [Audio podcast]. Name of Podcast. Retrieved from URL

Example

Gilbert, E. (Host). (2015, July 13). Do what ignites your soul [Audio podcast]. Magic Lessons. Retrieved from http://podbay.fm/show/1018969048/e/1436813857?autostart=1

External Citation Resources

Ontario College Citation Guides

If you’re struggling with your citations, don’t worry! There’s lots of help available.

  • Start with your own college’s citation help resources. You’ll find the links below. Many college libraries provide citation examples for different formats (e.g. journals, websites, YouTube videos, etc.), and quick reference PDF guides that you can print or download. Feel free to check out other college’s help pages if you’re not finding what you need.

  • There is also lots of citation instruction and assistance online. You’ll find links to a few websites and YouTube channels below.

Two-Step Citation Process

Step 1: In-text Citations

Every single use of someone else’s work in your paper must be acknowledged. You do this by adding an in-text citation, sometimes called a parenthetical reference (which means in parenthesis), right before or after the use of someone else’s idea. 

An in-text citation is a short indication of someone else’s work, embedded right in the body of your paper.  Information typically included in an in-text citation is (author year page number), but this is style dependent. 

Here are two examples of in-text citations:

  • APA: (Jones, 2016) for paraphrases, or (Jones, 2016, p.139) for direct quotes
  • MLA: (Jones 139) for paraphrases and direct quotes  

Every single in-text citation must have a corresponding full reference/works cited entry at the end of the paper. You have to have both an in-text citation and a detailed reference in order for the citation to be complete.

For more instructions and examples for in-text citations, please see your college citation guide, or refer to Seneca's In-Text Citation pages:

APA in Minutes: In-text Citations Video Transcript (Word) Opens in a new window

Step 2: References/Works Cited

The References/Works Cited page contains detailed information about a particular source. This detailed reference is on a separate page at the end of your paper. It is arranged alphabetically by author’s last name. Be sure to double check capitalization and punctuation for the citation style you are using. 

Tips for creating a reference list or works cited page

  1. List each source (such as journal articles, books, websites) that you used in your paper
  2. Each source must be listed in alphabetical order by author's last name. If there is no identifiable author for a source cite it by title.
  3. Indent the second and following lines of each reference entry (this is known as a "hanging indent")
  4. Must be double spaced
  5. Must be a separate page at the end of your assignment

Note: refer to the citation manual or style guide for correct punctuation and capitalization

Locating Information in a Citation - Creating a Reference

Author or Authors

Sometimes it’s hard to know where to look to find the information you need to create a citation. Different types of sources require different information to be included in the reference page.


This information is usually one of the first things you can locate pretty easily. If you are looking at a book, the author(s) can be found on the front cover. Journal articles have author(s) listed on the first page of the article or on the title page if there is one.

When looking at websites, it’s hard to know where to locate the author. Do a bit of digging. Is there an about us/me section? Is the author listed by the last modified or copyright date on the bottom of the page. Is there a logo? Sometimes the author of a website can be a corporation or an organization. We call these corporate or group authors.

Date of Publication

Sometimes publication dates can be found on the very first page of the article you are looking at. You may have to look around on both the top and bottom of the first page. 

Books include this info by the copyright symbol on the verso.

Websites can be tricky. Sometimes a last modified date is found on the bottom of the page. This can also be a copyright date. If there is no identifiable date, it’s perfectly acceptable to put (n.d.). This indicates there is no date found on the page you are looking at.

Title of the Work and the Source

This can get confusing for many people. You want to make sure you know what you are citing. Most of the time, you will want to record the title of what you are looking at whether it’s the title of the book or the particular page you are looking at on a website. Usually that’s all you need and these are italicized in the reference. However, when you are citing journal, newspaper and magazine articles, you have to include both the title of the article and the title of journal/newspaper/magazine. These are usually italicized on the reference page instead of the title of the article.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

DOI stands for digital object identifier. 

A DOI is a unique number assigned to journal articles only. It acts as a URL to that particular article. Not all journal articles have a DOI. DOI information is easily identifiable. It almost always includes the words DOI followed by a combination of letters or numbers. It’s usually on the first page of the journal article but can also be found beside the title of the journal. 

Missing Information

Don’t panic if information is missing in a citation. Some citation styles are pretty flexible when it comes to missing information.

Sometimes a journal may not include a volume or an issue number, and that’s perfectly fine. It’s okay to leave that information out.

Work with what you have available to you. If it’s not there, no need to include anything.

This is not the case for publication dates. If there is no date, simply put (n.d.) in place of a year.